Mode de vie actif
(2018). La sécurité des cyclistes: importance du casque de vélo et pertinence de le rendre obligatoire au Québec: avis scientifique. Montréal, Institut national de santé publique du Québec. [Book]
Le vélo est un moyen de transport alternatif à l’automobile et peu coûteux qui peut contribuer à la santé et au bien-être des cyclistes tout en réduisant la congestion de la circulation, la pollution de l’air et le bruit ambiant. Pour profiter pleinement des bienfaits associés à la pratique du vélo, il importe toutefois de diminuer le risque de blessures lié à cette activité. C’est en faisant la promotion des comportements sécuritaires auprès des cyclistes et des conducteurs de véhicules à moteur et en favorisant le développement d’infrastructures cyclables sécuritaires qu’on pourra diminuer ce risque. Ainsi, plusieurs mesures peuvent assurer la sécurité des cyclistes, mais le port du casque de vélo demeure la seule qui permet de prévenir les blessures à la tête lors d’une chute ou d’une collision. Les blessures à la tête contribuent de façon importante aux décès et aux hospitalisations chez les cyclistes. La prévention de ces blessures représente donc un enjeu de santé publique. C’est dans ce contexte, en vertu du mandat conféré par le ministère de la Santé et des Services sociaux, que l’Institut national de santé publique du Québec s’est engagé à produire un avis visant à analyser l’efficacité du casque de vélo ainsi que d’autres mesures permettant la pratique sécuritaire du vélo et à évaluer les impacts d’une loi obligeant le port du casque chez les cyclistes. Cet avis porte principalement sur la pratique du vélo à des fins récréatives et utilitaires. Il ne porte pas sur la pratique dans un cadre compétitif qui, elle, est encadrée par les différentes organisations sportives québécoises et canadiennes.
Aziz, H. M. A., N. N. Nagle, A. M. Morton, M. R. Hilliard, D. A. White and R. N. Stewart (2018). « Exploring the impact of walk–bike infrastructure, safety perception, and built-environment on active transportation mode choice: a random parameter model using New York City commuter data. » Transportation 45(5): 1207-1229. [Journal Article]
This study estimates a random parameter (mixed) logit model for active transportation (walk and bicycle) choices for work trips in the New York City (using 2010–2011 Regional Household Travel Survey Data). We explored the effects of traffic safety, walk–bike network facilities, and land use attributes on walk and bicycle mode choice decision in the New York City for home-to-work commute. Applying the flexible econometric structure of random parameter models, we capture the heterogeneity in the decision making process and simulate scenarios considering improvement in walk–bike infrastructure such as sidewalk width and length of bike lane. Our results indicate that increasing sidewalk width, total length of bike lane, and proportion of protected bike lane will increase the likelihood of more people taking active transportation mode This suggests that the local authorities and planning agencies to invest more on building and maintaining the infrastructure for pedestrians. Further, improvement in traffic safety by reducing traffic crashes involving pedestrians and bicyclists, will increase the likelihood of taking active transportation modes. Our results also show positive correlation between number of non-motorized trips by the other family members and the likelihood to choose active transportation mode. The model would be an essential tool to estimate the impact of improving traffic safety and walk–bike infrastructure which will assist in investment decision making.q
Basch, C. H., D. Ethan, S. Rajan, S. Samayoa-Kozlowsky and C. E. Basch (2014). « Helmet use among users of the Citi Bike bicycle-sharing program: a pilot study in New York City. » J Community Health 39(3): 503-507. [Journal Article]
The use of bicycle helmets to prevent or reduce serious head injuries is well established. However, it is unclear how to effectively promote helmet use, particularly in the context of bicycle-sharing programs. The need to determine rates of helmet use specifically among users of bicycle-sharing programs and understand if certain characteristics, such as time of day, affect helmet use, is imperative if effective promotion and/or legislative efforts addressing helmet use are to be developed. We estimated the prevalence of helmet use among a sample of Citi Bike program users in New York City. A total of 1,054 cyclists were observed over 44 h and across the 22 busiest Citi Bike locations. Overall, 85.3% (95% CI 82.2, 88.4%) of the cyclists observed did not wear a helmet. Rates of helmet non-use were also consistent whether cyclists were entering or leaving the docking station, among cyclists using the Citi Bikes earlier versus later in the day, and among cyclists using the Citi Bikes on weekends versus weekdays. Improved understanding about factors that facilitate and hinder helmet use is needed to help reduce head injury risk among users of bicycle sharing programs.
Basch, C. H., D. Ethan, P. Zybert, S. Afzaal, M. Spillane and C. E. Basch (2015). « Public bike sharing in New York City: helmet use behavior patterns at 25 Citi Bike stations. » J Community Health 40(3): 530-533. [Journal Article]
Urban public bicycle sharing programs are on the rise in the United States. Launched in 2013, NYC’s public bicycle share program, Citi Bike is the fastest growing program of its kind in the nation, with nearly 100,000 members and more than 330 docking stations across Manhattan and Brooklyn. The purpose of this study was to assess helmet use behavior among Citi Bike riders at 25 of the busiest docking stations. The 25 Citi Bike Stations varied greatly in terms of usage: total number of cyclists (N = 96-342), commute versus recreation (22.9-79.5% commute time riders), weekday versus weekend (6.0-49.0% weekend riders). Helmet use ranged between 2.9 and 29.2% across sites (median = 7.5 %). A total of 4,919 cyclists were observed, of whom 545 (11.1%) were wearing helmets. Incoming cyclists were more likely to wear helmets than outgoing cyclists (11.0 vs 5.9%, p = .000). NYC’s bike share program endorses helmet use, but relies on education to encourage it. Our data confirm that, to date, this strategy has not been successful.
Basch, C. H., E. A. Zagnit, S. Rajan, D. Ethan and C. E. Basch (2014). « Helmet use among cyclists in New York City. » J Community Health 39(5): 956-958. [Journal Article]
Lack of helmet use while bicycling can have deleterious effects on health. Despite evidence that helmets can greatly reduce the risk of head injury, the prevalence of helmet use among riders, including those in urban bicycle-share programs, has been shown to be very low. Building upon the authors’ previous work, this study’s aim was to assess prevalence of helmet use among cyclists riding on widely used New York City (NYC) bike lanes. Across a 2-month period, cyclists were filmed in five NYC locations with bike lanes. Filming took place at two separate time periods (recreation and commute) at each location. Helmet use was coded for each cyclist. A total of 1,921 riders were observed across 10 h. Overall, half (50.0 %) of all riders were observed wearing a helmet. Rates of using a helmet were consistent across all five locations. In addition, only 21.7 % of Citi Bike users and 15.3 % of other bicycle rentals were observed wearing helmets while cycling. The prevalence of helmet use was significantly higher among males than females (z = 4.48, p < .001). Cyclists observed during the recreational time period were also less likely than those observed during the commuting time period to be wearing a helmet (z = 7.17, p < .001). The results of this study contribute to the growing literature about cyclist helmet use in urban areas.
Bonyun, M., A. Camden, C. Macarthur and A. Howard (2012). « Helmet use in BIXI cyclists in Toronto, Canada: an observational study. » BMJ Open 2(3). [Journal Article]
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the use of helmets for cyclists choosing to use BIXI bikes in comparison to personal bike riders in the City of Toronto. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study design. SETTING: Cyclists were observed in Toronto, Canada. PARTICIPANTS: Of the 6732 sample size, 306 cyclists on BIXI bikes and 6426 personal bike riders were observed. OUTCOME MEASURE: The outcome of interest was helmet use. RESULTS: Overall, 50.3% of cyclists wore helmets. The proportion of BIXI bike riders using helmets was significantly lower than the proportion of helmet users on personal bikes (20.9% vs 51.7%, respectively, p<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Although the BIXI bike programme has provided an alternate means for Torontonians to use a bicycle, cyclists using BIXI bikes are much less likely to wear a helmet. Since the prevalence of helmet use in cyclists in general is already low, helmet use should be especially promoted in BIXI bike riders in order to promote a safe and healthy environment for cyclists.
Ding, D., B. Nguyen, V. Learnihan, A. E. Bauman, R. Davey, B. Jalaludin and K. Gebel (2018). « Moving to an active lifestyle? A systematic review of the effects of residential relocation on walking, physical activity and travel behaviour. » Br J Sports Med 52(12): 789-799. [Journal Article]
OBJECTIVE: To synthesise the literature on the effects of neighbourhood environmental change through residential relocation on physical activity, walking and travel behaviour. DESIGN: Systematic review following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines (PROSPERO registration number CRD42017077681). DATA SOURCES: Electronic databases for peer-reviewed and grey literature were systematically searched to March 2017, followed by forward and backward citation tracking. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: A study was eligible for inclusion if it (1) measured changes in neighbourhood built environment attributes as a result of residential relocation (either prospectively or retrospectively); (2) included a measure of physical activity, walking, cycling or travel modal change as an outcome; (3) was quantitative and (4) included an English abstract or summary. RESULTS: A total of 23 studies was included in the review. Among the eight retrospective longitudinal studies, there was good evidence for the relationship between relocation and walking (consistency score (CS)>90%). For the 15 prospective longitudinal studies, the evidence for the effects of environmental change/relocation on physical activity or walking was weak to moderate (CS mostly <45%), even weaker for effects on other outcomes, including physical activity, cycling, public transport use and driving. Results from risk of bias analyses support the robustness of the findings. CONCLUSION: The results are encouraging for the retrospective longitudinal relocation studies, but weaker evidence exists for the methodologically stronger prospective longitudinal relocation studies. The evidence base is currently limited, and continued longitudinal research should extend the plethora of cross-sectional studies to build higher-quality evidence.
Ethan, D., C. H. Basch, G. D. Johnson, R. Hammond, C. M. Chow and V. Varsos (2016). « An Analysis of Technology-Related Distracted Biking Behaviors and Helmet Use Among Cyclists in New York City. » J Community Health 41(1): 138-145. [Journal Article]
Bicycling is becoming an increasingly utilized mode of transportation in New York City. Technology-related distracted bicycling and helmet use are behaviors that can impact bike safety. The aims of this study were twofold: (1) to determine rates and types of technology-related distracted behaviors among bicyclists in the borough of Manhattan in New York City; and (2) to assess the rate of bicycle helmet use among these cyclists. Bicyclists in five popular riding areas in Manhattan were observed for a total of 50 h using a digital video camera during summer months in 2014. Videos were coded and enumerated for the total number and gender of cyclists, type of bicycle, number wearing headphones/earbuds and/or using a mobile phone, and whether the cyclist was wearing a helmet. Almost 25,000 cyclists were observed across the five selected locations (n = 24,861). Riders were almost four times more likely not to wear a helmet on rental bikes as compared with non-rentals (Citi Bike((R)) OR 3.8; 95% CI 2.5, 5.9: other rental OR 3.8; 95% CI 3.0, 4.9). Significantly increased odds of not wearing a helmet were observed for females relative to males (OR 1.4; 95% CI 1.1, 1.8) across varied times and locations. Overall, rates of technology-related distraction were low, with headphone use being most prevalent. Males were more likely to wear headphones/earbuds (OR 2.0; 95% CI 1.4, 2.9), as were cyclists on Citi Bikes relative to other rental bikes (OR 2.2; 95% CI 1.3, 3.6). Findings from this study contribute to the growing literature on distracted biking and helmet use among bike share program riders and other cyclists and can inform policymakers and program planners aiming to improve bicycle safety in urban settings.
Fuller, D., L. Gauvin, Y. Kestens, M. Daniel, M. Fournier, P. Morency and L. Drouin (2011). « Use of a new public bicycle share program in Montreal, Canada. » Am J Prev Med 41(1): 80-83. [Journal Article]
BACKGROUND: Cycling contributes to physical activity and health. Public bicycle share programs (PBSPs) increase population access to bicycles by deploying bicycles at docking stations throughout a city. Minimal research has systematically examined the prevalence and correlates of PBSP use. PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence and correlates of use of a new public bicycle share program called BIXI (name merges the word BIcycle and taXI) implemented in May 2009 in Montreal, Canada. METHODS: A total of 2502 adults were recruited to a telephone survey in autumn 2009 via random-digit dialing according to a stratified random sampling design. The prevalence of BIXI bicycle use was estimated. Multivariate logistic regression allowed for identification of correlates of use. Data analysis was conducted in spring and summer 2010. RESULTS: The unweighted mean age of respondents was 47.4 (SD=16.8) years and 61.4% were female. The weighted prevalence for use of BIXI bicycles at least once was 8.2%. Significant correlates of BIXI bicycle use were having a BIXI docking station within 250 m of home, being aged 18-24 years, being university educated, being on work leave, and using cycling as the primary mode of transportation to work. CONCLUSIONS: A newly implemented public bicycle share program attracts a substantial fraction of the population and is more likely to attract younger and more educated people who currently use cycling as a primary transportation mode.
Fuller, D., L. Gauvin, Y. Kestens, M. Daniel, M. Fournier, P. Morency and L. Drouin (2013). « Impact evaluation of a public bicycle share program on cycling: a case example of BIXI in Montreal, Quebec. » Am J Public Health 103(3): e85-92. [Journal Article]
OBJECTIVES: We examined associations between residential exposure to BIXI (BIcycle-taXI)-a public bicycle share program implemented in Montreal, Quebec, in 2009, which increases accessibility to cycling by making available 5050 bicycles at 405 bicycle docking stations-and likelihood of cycling (BIXI and non-BIXI) in Montreal over the first 2 years of implementation. METHODS: Three population-based samples of adults participated in telephone surveys. Data collection occurred at the launch of the program (spring 2009), and at the end of the first (fall 2009) and second (fall 2010) seasons of implementation. Difference in differences models assessed whether greater cycling was observed for those exposed to BIXI compared with those not exposed at each time point. RESULTS: We observed a greater likelihood of cycling for those exposed to the public bicycle share program after the second season of implementation (odds ratio = 2.86; 95% confidence interval = 1.85, 4.42) after we controlled for weather, built environment, and individual variables. CONCLUSIONS: The implementation of a public bicycle share program can lead to greater likelihood of cycling among persons living in areas where bicycles are made available.
Goodman, A. (2013). « Walking, cycling and driving to work in the English and Welsh 2011 census: trends, socio-economic patterning and relevance to travel behaviour in general. » PLoS One 8(8): e71790. [Journal Article]
OBJECTIVES: Increasing walking and cycling, and reducing motorised transport, are health and environmental priorities. This paper examines levels and trends in the use of different commute modes in England and Wales, both overall and with respect to small-area deprivation. It also investigates whether commute modal share can serve as a proxy for travel behaviour more generally. METHODS: 23.7 million adult commuters reported their usual main mode of travelling to work in the 2011 census in England and Wales; similar data were available for 1971-2001. Indices of Multiple Deprivation were used to characterise socio-economic patterning. The National Travel Survey (2002-2010) was used to examine correlations between commute modal share and modal share of total travel time. These correlations were calculated across 150 non-overlapping populations defined by region, year band and income. RESULTS: Among commuters in 2011, 67.1% used private motorised transport as their usual main commute mode (-1.8 percentage-point change since 2001); 17.8% used public transport (+1.8% change); 10.9% walked (-0.1% change); and 3.1% cycled (+0.1% change). Walking and, to a marginal extent, cycling were more common among those from deprived areas, but these gradients had flattened over the previous decade to the point of having essentially disappeared for cycling. In the National Travel Survey, commute modal share and total modal share were reasonably highly correlated for private motorised transport (r = 0.94), public transport (r = 0.96), walking (r = 0.88 excluding London) and cycling (r = 0.77). CONCLUSIONS: England and Wales remain car-dependent, but the trends are slightly more encouraging. Unlike many health behaviours, it is more common for socio-economically disadvantaged groups to commute using physically active modes. This association is, however, weakening and may soon reverse for cycling. At a population level, commute modal share provides a reasonable proxy for broader travel patterns, enhancing the value of the census in characterising background trends and evaluating interventions.
Hosking, J., A. Macmillan, J. Connor, C. Bullen and S. Ameratunga (2010). « Organisational travel plans for improving health. » Cochrane Database Syst Rev(3): CD005575. [Journal Article]
BACKGROUND: Dependence on car use has a number of broad health implications, including contributing to physical inactivity, road traffic injury, air pollution and social severance, as well as entrenching lifestyles that require environmentally unsustainable energy use. Travel plans are interventions that aim to reduce single-occupant car use and increase the use of alternatives such as walking, cycling and public transport, with a variety of behavioural and structural components. This review focuses on organisational travel plans for schools, tertiary institutes and workplaces. These plans are closely aligned in their aims and intervention design, having emerged from a shared theoretical base. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of organisational travel plans on health, either directly measured, or through changes in travel mode. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the following electronic databases; Transport (1988 to June 2008), MEDLINE (1950 to June 2008), EMBASE (1947 to June 2008), CINAHL (1982 to June 2008), ERIC (1966 to June 2008), PSYCINFO (1806 to June 2008), Sociological Abstracts (1952 to June 2008), BUILD (1989 to 2002), Social Sciences Citation Index (1900 to June 2008), Science Citation Index (1900 to June 2008), Arts & Humanities Index (1975 to June 2008), Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (to August 2008), CENTRAL (to August 2008), Cochrane Injuries Group Register (to December 2009), C2-RIPE (to July 2008), C2-SPECTR (to July 2008), ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (1861 to June 2008). We also searched the reference lists of relevant articles, conference proceedings and Internet sources. We did not restrict the search by date, language or publication status. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials and controlled before-after studies of travel behaviour change programmes conducted in an organisational setting, where the measured outcome was change in travel mode or health. Both positive and negative health effects were included. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently assessed eligibility, assessed trial quality and extracted data. MAIN RESULTS: Seventeen studies were included. Ten were conducted in a school setting, two in universities, and five in workplaces. One study directly measured health outcomes, and all included studies measured travel outcomes. Two cluster randomised controlled trials in the school setting showed either no change in travel mode or mixed results. A randomised controlled trial in the workplace setting, conducted in a pre-selected group who were already contemplating or preparing for active travel, found improved health-related quality of life on some sub scales, and increased walking. Two controlled before-after studies found that school travel interventions increased walking. Other studies were judged to be at high risk of bias. No included studies were conducted in low- or middle-income countries, and no studies measured the social distribution of effects or adverse effects, such as injury. AUTHORS’ CONCLUSIONS: There is insufficient evidence to determine whether organisational travel plans are effective for improving health or changing travel mode. Organisational travel plans should be considered as complex health promotion interventions, with considerable potential to influence community health outcomes depending on the environmental context in which they are introduced. Given the current lack of evidence, organisational travel plans should be implemented in the context of robustly-designed research studies, such as well-designed cluster randomised trials.
Jensen, W., B. Brown, K. Smith, S. Brewer, J. Amburgey, B. McIff, W. A. Jensen, B. B. Brown, K. R. Smith, S. C. Brewer, J. W. Amburgey and B. McIff (2017). « Active Transportation on a Complete Street: Perceived and Audited Walkability Correlates. » Int J Environ Res Public Health 14(9): 1014. [Journal Article]
Few studies of walkability include both perceived and audited walkability measures. We examined perceived walkability (Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale—Abbreviated, NEWS-A) and audited walkability (Irvine–Minnesota Inventory, IMI) measures for residents living within 2 km of a “complete street”—one renovated with light rail, bike lanes, and sidewalks. For perceived walkability, we found some differences but substantial similarity between our final scales and those in a prior published confirmatory factor analysis. Perceived walkability, in interaction with distance, was related to complete street active transportation. Residents were likely to have active transportation on the street when they lived nearby and perceived good aesthetics, crime safety, and traffic safety. Audited walkability, analyzed with decision trees, showed three general clusters of walkability areas, with 12 specific subtypes. A subset of walkability items (n = 11), including sidewalks, zebra-striped crosswalks, decorative sidewalks, pedestrian signals, and blank walls combined to cluster street segments. The 12 subtypes yielded 81% correct classification of residents’ active transportation. Both perceived and audited walkability were important predictors of active transportation. For audited walkability, we recommend more exploration of decision tree approaches, given their predictive utility and ease of translation into walkability interventions.
Lapointe, L. (2017). « Le renforcement des capacités communautaires et l’implantation d’un programme de promotion du transport actif vers l’école : le cas de Trottibus. » [Journal Article]
Larouche, R. (2018). 9 – Community Factors Related to Active Transportation. Children’s Active Transportation. R. Larouche, Elsevier: 127-140. [Book Section]
The community in which a child lives can have a strong influence on their travel behaviours. This chapter describes the role of several community factors including school policies and practices, social cohesion, bullying, crime, neighbourhood deprivation (i.e., economic hardship) and social norms. School policies and practices can either encourage or discourage active transportation depending on the context. Social cohesion—described as “the glue that holds society together”—can encourage parents to let their children walk or cycle; however, it may be undermined by heavy traffic. Bullying is perceived as a barrier to active transportation by many children. However, parents tend to be more concerned by the extremely low risk of strangers harming their child, and this concern is fuelled by omnipresent and sensationalistic media coverage. Of particular concern, many studies have shown that children living in more deprived neighbourhoods are more likely to engage in active transportation, even though they may face a greater risk of road injuries. Finally, the perception of what it means to be a “good parent” in a given community can legitimize the chauffeuring of children in some contexts, whereas elsewhere, positive social norms may encourage active transportation.
Lee, E. and J. Dean (2018). « Perceptions of walkability and determinants of walking behaviour among urban seniors in Toronto, Canada. » Journal of Transport & Health 9: 309-320. [Journal Article]
Research has indicated the built environment strongly influences active transportation, though the specific mechanisms through which active transport occurs differ in findings. This study investigated the relationship between objective and subjective measures of walkability for seniors living in Toronto through a multi-phased, mixed-methods approach. Two neighbourhoods within the city were selected as case study areas. Wychwood represented a high walkability neighbourhood and Edenbridge-Humber Valley represented a neighbourhood lower in walkability. The walkability audit, the Senior Walking Environmental Assessment Tool – Revised (SWEAT-R), served as the objective measure. Subjective measures included the use of focus groups, go-along interviews, and traditional interviews with twenty-eight seniors across both neighbourhoods. The findings of this research highlighted the efficacy of objective measures existing in literature, but these did not adequately capture the holistic relationships between seniors and their surrounding environments. The subjective measures of walkability proved especially important for understanding perceptions of walkability and walking behaviour. Additionally, the findings echo recent study findings that recommend theory-based approaches to walkability research may be more effective in accounting for human behaviour in active transportation. This study concludes with practical and theoretical recommendations for planners, public health specialists, and other experts interested in promoting active transportation for seniors.
Lee, R. J., I. N. Sener and S. N. Jones (2017). « Understanding the role of equity in active transportation planning in the United States. » Transport Reviews 37(2): 211-226. [Journal Article]
Active transportation modes are increasingly being acknowledged for their individual and societal benefits. As a result, funding for pedestrian and bicycle infrastructure in the United States has increased substantially in recent years. However, pedestrian and bicycle equity impacts often go overlooked, which has resulted in an inequitable distribution of active transportation costs and benefits. The paper contributes to this small but growing field by developing an enhanced understanding of active transportation equity, identifying limitations in research and in practice, and providing a set of recommendations for planners and researchers. These recommendations include considering other transportation-disadvantaged groups beyond low-income and minority populations in equity analysis, adopting new performance measures, increasing inter-agency coordination, the need for stronger guidance from the federal government, and more representation from transportation-disadvantaged groups in the public participation and decision-making process. If the costs and benefits of active transportation are to be fairly shared among all users, equity will need to be meaningfully addressed in the planning process.
McCormack, G. R., L. McLaren, G. Salvo and A. Blackstaffe (2017). « Changes in Objectively-Determined Walkability and Physical Activity in Adults: A Quasi-Longitudinal Residential Relocation Study. » Int J Environ Res Public Health 14(5). [Journal Article]
Causal evidence for the built environment’s role in supporting physical activity is needed to inform land use and transportation policies. This quasi-longitudinal residential relocation study compared within-person changes in self-reported transportation walking, transportation cycling, and overall physical activity during the past 12 months among adults who did and did not move to a different neighbourhood. In 2014, a random sample of adults from 12 neighbourhoods (Calgary, AB, Canada) with varying urban form and socioeconomic status provided complete self-administered questionnaire data (n = 915). Participants, some of whom moved neighbourhood during the past 12 months (n = 95), reported their perceived change in transportation walking and cycling, and overall physical activity during that period. The questionnaire also captured residential self-selection, and sociodemographic and health characteristics. Walk Scores((R)) were linked to each participant’s current and previous neighbourhood and three groups identified: walkability « improvers » (n = 48); « decliners » (n = 47), and; « maintainers » (n = 820). Perceived change in physical activity was compared between the three groups using propensity score covariate-adjusted Firth logistic regression (odds ratios: OR). Compared with walkability maintainers, walkability decliners (OR 4.37) and improvers (OR 4.14) were more likely (p < 0.05) to report an increase in their transportation walking since moving neighbourhood, while walkability decliners were also more likely (OR 3.17) to report decreasing their transportation walking since moving. Walkability improvers were more likely than maintainers to increase their transportation cycling since moving neighbourhood (OR 4.22). Temporal changes in neighbourhood walkability resulting from residential relocation appear to be associated with reported temporal changes in transportation walking and cycling in adults.
Mumford, K. G., C. K. Contant, J. Weissman, J. Wolf and K. Glanz (2011). « Changes in physical activity and travel behaviors in residents of a mixed-use development. » Am J Prev Med 41(5): 504-507. [Journal Article]
BACKGROUND: Mixed-use developments may be especially promising settings for encouraging walking and other types of physical activity. PURPOSE: This study examined the physical activity and travel behaviors of individuals before and after they relocated to Atlantic Station, a mixed-use redevelopment community in metropolitan Atlanta. METHODS: A survey study was conducted to compare the behaviors, experiences, and attitudes of Atlantic Station residents before and after moving to a mixed-use neighborhood. Data were collected in 2008 and 2009 and analyzed in 2010. Key dependent variables were self-reported physical activity and travel behaviors including walking for recreation and transport, automobile use, and use of public transportation. RESULTS: Study participants included 101 adult residents of Atlantic Station, most of whom were female, young, and well educated. There were significant increases in walking for recreation or fitness (46%-54%; p<0.05) and walking for transportation (44%-84%; p<0.001) after moving into the mixed-use development. Respondents also reported reduced automobile travel and increased time spent using public transportation after moving to Atlantic Station. Because this study used individuals as their own controls, there is more control over confounding lifestyle variables compared to cross-sectional studies of individuals living in different neighborhoods. CONCLUSIONS: Adults who move to a denser, mixed-use neighborhood increase their levels of walking for both recreation and transportation, decrease their automobile travel, and increase their use of public transportation.
Paquin, S., M. Ghorbel and S. Guay (2017). Mémoire présenté à l’Office de consultation publique de Montréal: projet Pierrefonds-ouest. Montréal, Centre intégré universitaire de santé et de services sociaux du Centre-Sud-de-l’Île-de-Montréal. Direction régionale de santé publique. [Book]
Paquin, S., M. Ghorbel and S. Guay (2017). Mémoire présenté à l’Office de consultation publique de Montréal: projet Pierrefonds-ouest. Montréal, Centre intégré universitaire de santé et de services sociaux du Centre-Sud-de-l’Île-de-Montréal. Direction régionale de santé publique. [Book]
Pepin, Y. (2018). L’activité physique de loisir et le transport: faits saillants de l’Enquête québécoise sur la santé de la population en Mauricie et Centre-du-Québec 2014-2015. Trois-Rivières, Centre intégré universitaire de santé et de services sociaux de la Mauricie-et-du-Centre-du-Québec. [Book]
Perchoux, C., J. A. Nazare, T. Benmarhnia, P. Salze, T. Feuillet, S. Hercberg, F. Hess, M. Menai, C. Weber, H. Charreire, C. Enaux, J. M. Oppert and C. Simon (2017). « Étude des disparités d’éducation du quartier sur la pratique du transport actif vers le lieu de travail/étude : l’effet modérateur de la distance (une étude ACTI-Cités). » Nutrition Clinique et Métabolisme 31(1): 58. [Journal Article]
Introduction et but de l’étude La promotion de la pratique de l’activité physique, notamment par le transport actif (marche, vélo), est devenue un enjeu prioritaire des politiques de nutrition de santé publique. Ces dernières années, des études ont montré l’influence de déterminants sociaux sur la pratique du transport actif, tant à l’échelle individuelle qu’à l’échelle du quartier. Cependant, peu d’études se sont intéressées aux mécanismes par lesquels l’environnement social influence le transport actif vers les lieux de travail/études chez les adultes. Cette étude a deux objectifs : (i) évaluer l’effet du niveau d’éducation du quartier de résidence sur le transport actif vers le lieu de travail/étude ; (ii) évaluer dans quelle mesure la distance de trajet vient modérer la relation entre le niveau d’éducation du quartier et le transport actif. Matériel et méthodes Cette étude s’appuie sur un sous-échantillon de l’étude NutriNet-Santé (n=1169) ayant répondu à des questions spécifiques sur le transport actif. Des données sur le statut socioéconomique des quartiers ont été extraites dans des zones tampons circulaires de 1 000m de rayon autour de la résidence de chaque participant. Des modèles de régressions binomiale, log-binomiale et négative binomiale ont été utilisés pour évaluer les risques relatifs et absolus des associations entre le niveau d’éducation du quartier et (i) la probabilité de déclarer du temps de transport actif, ainsi que (ii) la proportion de temps de transport actif par rapport au temps de transport total lors du trajet à destination du lieu de travail/étude. L’effet modérateur de la distance sur l’association entre le niveau d’éducation du quartier et la pratique du transport actif a été évalué sur les échelles multiplicative et additive à l’aide de tests d’homogénéité. Résultats et analyse statistique Le niveau d’éducation du quartier est positivement associé à la probabilité de déclarer une pratique de transport actif, et à la proportion du temps de transport actif par rapport au temps de transport total. L’effet du niveau d’éducation du quartier sur la pratique du transport actif varie selon la distance au lieu de travail/étude, sur l’échelle multiplicative et sur l’échelle additive. Les associations ci-dessus étaient plus fortes pour des trajets impliquant des distances longues (supérieures à des seuils de 1 500m et 2 500m, respectivement). Conclusion Nos résultats montrent un effet modérateur de la distance sur la relation entre le niveau d’éducation du quartier de résidence et le transport actif vers le lieu de travail/étude. Sous réserve de causalité, cette étude indique que dans une perspective de réduction des disparités d’éducation sur le transport actif, des interventions en promotion de la santé seraient plus effectives en ciblant des quartiers de résidence faiblement éduqués et éloignés de sources d’emplois potentielles. Financement Cette recherche a été financée par l’Institut national du cancer (INCa SHS-EPS 2011-113, projet ACTI-Cités).
Quinn, T. D., J. M. Jakicic, C. I. Fertman and B. B. Gibbs (2017). « Demographic factors, workplace factors and active transportation use in the USA: a secondary analysis of 2009 NHTS data. » J Epidemiol Community Health 71(5): 480-486. [Journal Article]
Background While active transportation has health, economic and environmental benefits, participation within the USA is low. The purpose of this study is to examine relationships of demographic and workplace factors with health-enhancing active transportation and commuting. Methods Participants in the 2009 National Household Travel Survey reported demographics, workplace factors (time/distance to work, flextime availability, option to work from home and work start time) and active transportation (for any purpose) or commuting (to and from work, workers only) as walking or biking (≥10 min bouts only). Multiple logistic regression examined cross-sectional relationships between demographics and workplace factors with active transportation and commuting. Results Among 152 573 participants, active transportation was reported by 1.11% by biking and 11.74% by walking. Among 111 808 working participants, active commuting was reported by 0.80% by biking and 2.76% by walking. Increased odds (p<0.05) of active commuting and transportation were associated with younger age, lower income, urban dwelling, and the highest and lowest education categories. Males had greater odds of commuting and transporting by bike but decreased odds of walk transporting. Inconsistent patterns were observed by race, but whites had greater odds of any biking (p<0.05). Odds of active commuting were higher with a flexible schedule (p<0.001), the option to work from home (p<0.05), shorter time and distance to work (both p<0.001), and work arrival time between 11:00 and 15:59 (walking only, p=0.001). Conclusions Active transportation differed across demographic and workplace factors. These relationships could inform infrastructure policy decisions and workplace wellness programming targeting increased active transportation.
Robitaille, É. (2017). Rendre l’environnement bâti favorable à la pratique du vélo en toute sécurité ! Montréal, Institut national de santé publique du Québec. [Book]
Que ce soit pour des motifs de loisirs ou de transport, la pratique sécuritaire du vélo, résulte des interactions entre les caractéristiques des individus et des environnements qui incluent des éléments naturels, de même que des éléments bâtis et aménagés. L’objectif principal de ce TOPO est de présenter les résultats d’écrits scientifiques entourant l’association entre l’environnement bâti, la pratique du vélo et la sécurité des cyclistes.
Sadik-Khan, J. and S. Solomonow (2016). Streetfight: handbook for an urban revolution. New York, Viking. [Book]
Saidla, K. (2017). « Le transport actif à Ottawa (Canada) face à des obstacles politiques tenaces. » Lien social et Politiques(78): 171-192. [Journal Article]
The promotion of active transportation (AT) – utilitarian trips including walking, cycling, and public transit use – represents an opportunity for increasing physical activity. Ottawa is a noteworthy example of success when measured by AT rates and assessed in a North American context. At the same time, its AT performance is weak in comparison with those of the best international cities, suggesting that its failure to achieve higher AT rates may be related to factors associated with its North American location. Through an application of the advocacy coalition framework (ACF), a formal policy process theory from political science, this paper highlights the importance of a category of enduring political obstacles (the ACF’s relatively stable parameters) with respect to long-term AT promotion efforts in Ottawa. Individual interviews were conducted with 21 Ottawa-based AT experts. Document review was employed as a secondary method. Overall, the research indicates challenges related to Ottawa’s North American sociocultural context and its political system constituted very strong obstacles to AT promotion. Viewed from the perspective of attempts to promote health in urban settings, these findings suggest that in jurisdictions subject to challenges similar to those identified for AT promotion in Ottawa, health-based actors should be encouraged to direct advocacy efforts to areas not normally within their traditional domains. In the case of AT in Ottawa, these might include, for example, the municipal revenue system and traditions within the field of transportation and land use planning.
Smith, M., J. Hosking, A. Woodward, K. Witten, A. MacMillan, A. Field, P. Baas and H. Mackie (2017). « Systematic literature review of built environment effects on physical activity and active transport – an update and new findings on health equity. » Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 14(1): 158. [Journal Article]
BACKGROUND: Evidence is mounting to suggest a causal relationship between the built environment and people’s physical activity behaviours, particularly active transport. The evidence base has been hindered to date by restricted consideration of cost and economic factors associated with built environment interventions, investigation of socioeconomic or ethnic differences in intervention effects, and an inability to isolate the effect of the built environment from other intervention types. The aims of this systematic review were to identify which environmental interventions increase physical activity in residents at the local level, and to build on the evidence base by considering intervention cost, and the differential effects of interventions by ethnicity and socioeconomic status. METHODS: A systematic database search was conducted in June 2015. Articles were eligible if they reported a quantitative empirical study (natural experiment or a prospective, retrospective, experimental, or longitudinal research) investigating the relationship between objectively measured built environment feature(s) and physical activity and/or travel behaviours in children or adults. Quality assessment was conducted and data on intervention cost and whether the effect of the built environment differed by ethnicity or socioeconomic status were extracted. RESULTS: Twenty-eight studies were included in the review. Findings showed a positive effect of walkability components, provision of quality parks and playgrounds, and installation of or improvements in active transport infrastructure on active transport, physical activity, and visits or use of settings. There was some indication that infrastructure improvements may predominantly benefit socioeconomically advantaged groups. Studies were commonly limited by selection bias and insufficient controlling for confounders. Heterogeneity in study design and reporting limited comparability across studies or any clear conclusions to be made regarding intervention cost. CONCLUSIONS: Improving neighbourhood walkability, quality of parks and playgrounds, and providing adequate active transport infrastructure is likely to generate positive impacts on activity in children and adults. The possibility that the benefits of infrastructure improvements may be inequitably distributed requires further investigation. Opportunities to improve the quality of evidence exist, including strategies to improve response rates and representativeness, use of valid and reliable measurement tools, cost-benefit analyses, and adequate controlling for confounders.
Smith, M., J. Hosking, A. Woodward, K. Witten, A. MacMillan, A. Field, P. Baas and H.
Zahabi, S. A. H., L. Miranda-Moreno, Z. Patterson and P. Barla (2017). « Impacts of built environment and emerging green technologies on daily transportation greenhouse gas emissions in Quebec cities: a disaggregate modeling approach. » Transportation 44(1): 159-180. [Journal Article]
This paper aims to investigate the impact of the built environment (BE) and emerging transit and car technologies on household transport-related greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) across three urban regions. Trip-level GHG emissions are first estimated by combining different data sources such as origin–destination (OD) surveys, vehicle fleet fuel consumption rates, and transit ridership data. BE indicators for the different urban regions are generated for each household and the impact of neighborhood typologies is derived based on these indicators. A traditional ordinary least square (OLS) regression approach is then used to investigate the direct association between the BE indicators, socio-demographics, and household GHGs. The effect of neighborhood typologies on GHGs is explored using both OLS and a simultaneous equation modeling approach. Once the best models are determined for each urban region, the potential impact of BE is determined through elasticities and compared with the impact of technological improvements. For this, various fuel efficiency scenarios are formulated and the reductions on household GHGs are determined. Once the potential impact of green transit and car technologies is determined, the results are compared to those related to BE initiatives. Among other results, it is found that BE attributes have a statistically significant effect on GHGs. However, the elasticities are very small, as reported in several previous studies. For instance, a 10 % increase in population density will result in 3.5, 1.5 and 1.4 % reduction in Montreal, Quebec and Sherbrooke, respectively. It is also important to highlight the significant variation of household GHGs among neighborhoods in the same city, variation which is much greater than among cities. In the short term, improvements on the private passenger vehicle fleet are expected to be much more significant than BE and green transit technologies. However, the combined effect of BE strategies and private-motor vehicle technological improvement would result in more significant GHGs
Zguira, Y., H. Rivano and A. Meddeb (2018). « Internet of Bikes: A DTN Protocol with Data Aggregation for Urban Data Collection. » Sensors (Basel) 18(9). [Journal Article]
Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) are an essential part of the global world. They play a substantial role for facing many issues such as traffic jams, high accident rates, unhealthy lifestyles, air pollution, etc. Public bike sharing system is one part of ITS and can be used to collect data from mobiles devices. In this paper, we propose an efficient, « Internet of Bikes », IoB-DTN routing protocol based on data aggregation which applies the Delay Tolerant Network (DTN) paradigm to Internet of Things (IoT) applications running data collection on urban bike sharing system based sensor network. We propose and evaluate three variants of IoB-DTN: IoB based on spatial aggregation (IoB-SA), IoB based on temporal aggregation (IoB-TA) and IoB based on spatiotemporal aggregation (IoB-STA). The simulation results show that the three variants offer the best performances regarding several metrics, comparing to IoB-DTN without aggregation and the low-power long-range technology, LoRa type. In an urban application, the choice of the type of which variant of IoB should be used depends on the sensed values.